The World Science Fiction Society Business Meeting at L.A.con II was scheduled to be held in four sessions, daily from Friday, Aug. 31 to Monday, Sept. 4 1984 at 9 AM. Only the first three sessions proved to be necessary. The Friday session was held in the San Simeon Room of the Anaheim Hilton; the later sessions were moved to the larger Avila Room. The officers for all three sessions were: Ross Pavlac, Presiding Officer; George Flynn, Secretary; George Scithers, Parliamentarian; and Bob Hillis, Timekeeper.


Friday, Aug. 31. 1984

The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Convention Co-Chairman Craig Miller announced that Bruce Pelz (the announced Presiding Officer) had asked Ross Pavlac to take his place. An attendance list subsequently circulated was signed by 84 people, including the officers.

The Secretary had distributed a set of minutes of the 1983 Business Meeting, based on those prepared by that meeting's officers. The following corrections to those minutes were proposed and accepted:
(1) In Item 1 below (Item A on pp 4-5 of the 1983 minutes), section B should contain the proviso "New York in '89 is exempted from this rule". [Proposed by Kent Bloom]
(2) In Item 2 below (Item B on p 6 of the 1983 minutes), "Convention" should replace "Worldcon" in clause (1). [Proposed by George Flynn.]


For these and other proposed amendments to the WSFS Constitution, all that could be done at Friday's session was to set time limits for debate at the Main Business Meeting (beginning Saturday) and to settle other procedural questions. The Chair requested that persons intending to speak for and against each motion identify themselves.

ITEM 1: ratification of amendment to select Worldcon Committees three years in advance rather than two.
MOVED, to amend Article III of the WSFS Constitution as follows:
A) In Section 1, strike out "two(2)" and insert "three (3)" in its place.
B) Add to Section 6: "A site shall be ineligible if it is within sixty (60) miles of the site at which selection occurs."
PROVIDED THAT New York in '89 is exempted from this rule.
C) Replace Section 9 with the following:
"With sites being selected three (3) years in advance, there are at least three selected current or future Worldcon committees in existence at all times. If one of these should be unable to perform its duties, the other selected current or future Worldcon Committee whose site is closet to the site of the one unable to perform its duties shall determine what action to take, by consulting the Business Meeting or by mail poll of WSFS if there is sufficient time, or by decision of the Committee if there is not sufficient time."
PROVIDED THAT the three-year advance selection shall not take effect until the 1986 Worldcon, at which both the 1988 and 1989 Worldcons shall be selected.

-- Don Eastlake asked whether a motion to strike section B) (making sites within 60 miles of the selection site ineligible) would be in order; and Kent Bloom asked whether section B) was divisible. The Chair at first ruled that it was divisible; after further discussion, however, the Parliamentarian ruled that it was properly not divisible, and could be changed only by the usual ratification process (i.e. if the section were removed, the change would be sufficiently substantive to require starting the ratification process anew). -- Proposed debate times: 10 minutes (Bob Hillis), 4 minutes (Robert Sacks, not seconded), plus 20-minute default: 10 minutes passed.

ITEM 2: ratification of amendment to formalize procedure for NASFiC site selection.
MOVED, to amend the WSFS Constitution, Article III, Section 7, by replacing the last two sentences with the following:
Selection of the Continental Convention shall be by the identical procedure to the Worldcon selection except as provided below or elsewhere in this Constitution: (1) voting shall be only by written ballot at the current Convention taken after the Worldcon selection is complete; (2) bids are restricted to sites in the appropriate zone; and (3) the prospective Continental Convention voting fee can be set by unanimous consent of the prospective candidates that file with the current Worldcon Committee before the calendar year in which selection will occur."
-- Default debate limit, 20 minutes. Proposed limit: 10 minutes (Rick Katze): 10 mins passed.

ITEM 3: to set deadlines for filing Worldcon and NASFiC bids.
MOVED, to amend the WSFS Constitution, Article III, Section 5, by adding the following:
The aforementioned rules and documentation of agreements, along with an announcement of intent to bid, must be filed with the Worldcon Committee that will administer the voting no later than [the close of] the previous Worldcon for a Worldcon bid and no later than the end of the calendar year before the voting for a prospective Continental Convention bid.
-- Default debate limit: 20 minutes. Proposed limits: 20 minutes (Rick Katze), 12 minutes (Don Eastlake). 12 minutes defeated, 20 mins passed.

ITEM 4 report of WSFS Standing Committee. - A written report was distributed (see Appendix), and Chairman Don Eastlake gave a summary of the report. With regard to the rejection of "Science Fiction Achievement Award", Mr Eastlake noted that an appeal was in progress and should be allowed to go to completion; the Chair ruled that if this appeal fails, further attempts to register the mark should be abandoned. Mr Eastlake also noted that he had an individual motion proposing the registration of NASFiC; the Chair directed the Standing Committee to pursue the registration of "NASFiC", if the NASFiC continues in existence. Jack Herman announced that he had been appointed to the Standing Committee by Aussiecon (replacing John Foyster, who had resigned). Mr Herman urged that any pursuit of additional service marks should be by resolution of the meeting, not directive of the Chair; such a resolution was then made (Robert Sacks) and passed. The Chair suggested that a guide to the use of service marks would be useful to future Worldcon Committees, and requested that the Standing Committee work on such guidelines. The Chair also inquired whether international registration was feasible; Mr Eastlake indicated that the main constraint was the cost of such registration. A motion was made and passed to commend the Standing Committee for its work.

ITEM 5 report of special committee on Worldcon site selection and rotations -- Committee chairman Stu Hellinger had no report. The Chair noted that a minority report had been submitted by Craig Miller and Ben Yalow (see Appendix); Mr Hellinger said that it was a majority report, since he also endorsed it. Mr Miller stated that the committee wished to phrase its recommendation as a motion, copies of which would be available on Saturday. On a point of order by Michael Schaffer, the Chair ruled that this motion would be considered after Item 5 of new business; however, upon Mr Miller's objection that he might be obliged to leave early, the Chair instead scheduled it as the first item of new business.


On behalf of the site-selection tellers, Seth Breidbart asked the Business Meeting to clarify when a ballot may be cast by one person in the name of another. The de facto policy had been to allow such ballots when filled out by A and carried by B., or when B held a written power of attorney from A; otherwise B might buy a membership for A, but only cast a "No Preference" vote. Jim Gilpatrick (not acting for the Atlanta committee) objected that some ballots not cast according to this procedure had been accepted, and that the procedure had not been announced in advance; he favored accepting the good faith of the person submitting the ballot. A discussion of historical precedents was inconclusive. The Chair was displeased to learn that the questionable ballots had not been segregated; Craig Miller suggested that such ballots be held separate in the future, and the Chair so ruled. --Gary Farber moved to refer the question to a committee of the bidders. On a point of order by Bruce Miller, the Chair ruled that any such arbitration would be binding for this Worldcon only. Robert Sacks suggested that a representative of the host convention, or some other neutral party, be added to the committee [this was in fact done]. The question was called, and Mr Farber's motion passed. -- Subsequently it was moved (Rick Katze) and passed to make this matter a special order of business at the beginning of Saturday's session.


ITEM A, motion on site rotation from special committee (see Item 5 above; motion not yet actually submitted). -- Bob Hillis noted that there was also a minority report from Mark Evans; Bruce Pelz was reported to be looking for it. -- Default debate limit, 20 minutes. Craig Miller proposed the default time; 20 minutes passed. -- In response to inquiries, Mr Miller explained that the motion would divide North America into two zones, with the rest of the world remaining eligible to bid at any time. Jack Herman gave notice of intent to submit an amendment, to divide the whole world into two zones.

ITEM B, submitted by Robert B Sacks, with 16 seconders:

MOVED, to amend Article III, Section 2 of the WSFS Constitution to add the words "and provide for write-in votes" before the word "after", and to add a new third sentence "For votes for a write-in to be counted, the prospective committee must present the documents required in Section 5." (This would require that write-in votes be allowed on site-selection ballots; this had been done traditionally, but was not allowed in 1984) -- Default debate limit: 6 minutes. Proposed limit: 5 minutes (Tony Lewis); 5 minutes passed. -- Michael Schaffer inquired whether the proposed third sentence was an addition or a replacement (the former): to clarify this point the word "add" was changed to "insert".

ITEM C, submitted by Richard Katze, William Siros, Robert L. Hillis, and Jim Gilpatrick:

MOVED, to amend Article III, Section 1 of the WSFS Constitution by substituting $20.00 for the current default rate of $10.00 (This would increase the default voting fee for site-selection voting.) -Default debate limit, 6 minutes. Proposed limit: 4 minutes (Rick Katze): 4 minutes passed.

ITEM C, submitted by Jack Herman and Justin Ackroyd:

MOVED, to delete Article III, Section 6 of the WSFS Constitution and replace it with:
A site shall be ineligible if it is within sixty (60) miles of the site at which selection occurs. (This would abolish all bidding zones) -- Mr Herman asked permission to withdraw this motion, and it was granted by the meeting.

ITEM D, submitted by Jack Herman and Justin Ackroyd:

MOVED, to delete Article III, Section 7 of the WSFS Constitution. (This would remove mention of the NASFiC from the Constitution.) -- Default debate limit, 6 minutes. Proposed limits: 20 minutes (Robert Sacks), 10 minutes (Rick Katze); 10 minutes passed on a voice vote; a division was called for, and confirmed this result.

ITEM E, submitted by Jack Herman and Justin Ackroyd:

MOVED, to amend Article IV, Section 4 of the WSFS Constitution by inserting "(or the local equivalent Meeting Rules authority)" after the words " Newly Revised". (This would allow rules other than Robert's to be used at Worldcons outside the U.S.) -- Tony Lewis objected to consideration. The Chair ruled this out of order: upon Don Eastlake's pointing out that an objection to consideration requires an immediate vote, the Chair withdrew his ruling, and a vote was taken. The vote was 42 for the objection to consideration, 27 against: this being less than two thirds, the objection failed. -- Gary Farber suggested substituting "country of current Worldcon" for "local": accepted by Mr Herman. Seth Breidbart proposed that the authority to be used must be specified when a bid is filed: accepted. Mr Breidbart's proposal that the authority must have been in use for 50 years was not accepted. -- Default debate limit, 6 minutes. Proposed limits 6 minutes (Robert Sacks): 6 minutes passed. -- Richard Russell asked about the effect on US Worldcons; the Chair ruled that Robert's would continue to be the default authority in the U.S.

ITEM F, submitted by Donald Eastlake and Jill Eastlake:

MOVED, to amend the WSFS Constitution as follows:

1) Replace all occurrences of "interim Continental Convention" and "Continental Convention" with "NASFiC", except for the first occurrence, which shall be replaced with "North American Science Fiction Convention (hereinafter referred to as NASFiC)".

2) Insert the following item in Article I, Section 2, after item C: "To choose the locations and Committees for the occasional North American Science Fiction Conventions (hereinafter referred to as NASFiCs)"

3) Insert "and NASFiC" after the second word in Article I, Section 6, and insert "NASFiC" into the list of marks in the notice whose publication is required by the same section.

Explanation: This amendment to the WSFS Constitution fully regularizes the NASFiC. At least two official NASFiCs have been held. The concept has withstood repeated attacks at the WSFS Business Meeting. It is time to recognize that, while nothing may be permanent, the NASFiC is here for the foreseeable future. -- The name is changed in the Constitution from "interim Continental Convention" to "NASFiC" because "NASFiC" is the name actually used in common practice.

Default debate limit, 20 minutes. Proposed limit: 3 minutes (Tony Lewis). 3 minutes passed.

ITEM G, submitted by Donald Eastlake and Jill Eastlake:

MOVED, to amend Article III, Section 1 of the WSFS Constitution by inserting the following at the end of the second sentence:
except for ____ which shall be turned over to the Standing Committee.

Explanation: This amendment to the WSFS Constitution would provide a regular source of funds for the WSFS Standing Committee. Thus far the Committee has been dependent on the charity of Worldcon committees. Because the level of such funding is a matter on which there may be a wide range of opinion, the motion is presented with a blank to be filled in. Possibilities for filling the blank include a fixed amount of money, a fixed amount per voter (per person paying the advance membership fee), or a percentage of the advance membership funds.

A fixed amount of money would provide the most stable funding but the amount would be subject to erosion by inflation. It is not clear what would happen should less than that amount ever be collected one year in advance membership fees, and the amount left for the selected Worldcon would be more variable than with the other possibilities. A fixed amount per voter provides funding of intermediate stability with some possibility of protection against inflation assuming there is a continuing increase in the number of voters. A percentage of the advanced membership funds provides the most variable funding but also the best protection against inflation. Variability in funding should not be a problem for the Standing Committee assuming it establishes a policy of building a fiscal reserve against contingencies.

The following special procedure is suggested for handling this motion: (1) a limited amount of debate during which fixed amounts, amounts per voter, and percentages may be nominated; (2) a vote by the procedure for filling blanks to select a fixed amount; (3) a vote by the procedure for filling blanks to select an amount per voter; (4) a vote by the procedure for filling blanks to select a percentage; (5) a vote between the alternatives of the selected amount per voter and the selected percentage; (6) a vote between the surviving alternative and the selected fixed amount; and (7) a vote on the amendment with its blank filled as above.

A suggestion that the fixed amount be selected at once was rejected. -Default debate limit, 20 minutes (with the proposed scheme for filling the blank taken as part of the motion). Proposed limits: 30 minutes (Robert Sacks). 20 minutes (Don Eastlake): 20 minutes passed as amendment. The Chair stated that he would follow the suggested procedure for filling the blank.

ITEM H, a motion initiated by Lew Wolkoff (who did not himself sign it) and signed by Gary Feldbaum, Larry Gelfand, Wilma Fisher, Elan Jane Litt, Devra Langsam, Elyse Rosenstein, Robert Sacks, and Donald Eastlake:

Resolved: Article III, "Future Worldcon Selection", shall be amended by the addition of the following language:
Section 10. The current Worldcon Committee should be neutral regarding the site selection(s) it is administering. It should not request or accept money or supplies from any one prospective Worldcon Committee without making the same opportunity available to any competing committee.

(This motion was generally taken to be with reference to the distribution of L.A.con II registration materials in "Atlanta in '86" shopping bags.) -- Al Kent suggested that "should" be changed to "shall"; the Chair expressed the opinion that this wording would be in violation of the Constitution. However, the change was accepted as a friendly amendment by the makers, and the Chair ruled that the motion might be considered in this form. -- Default debate limit, 6 minutes. Proposed limit: 6 minutes (Robert Sacks); 6 minutes accepted.


The Chair asked the bidding committees to be prepared to make their own nominations on Sunday. -- Nominations were opened, and the following were nominated: Craig Miller (by Cheryl Chapman), Rick Katze (by Jim Gilpatrick), Willie Siros (by Tony Lewis), Ross Pavlac (by Gary Farber), Gary Feldbaum (by Larry Gelfand), Robert Sacks (by ???), Larry Gelfand (by Greg Thokar). Not all the nominees were present, and it was pointed out by Don Eastlake that written consent was required by the rules: a motion to waive this requirement was made, and passed by a two-thirds vote. -- The voting to elect three members of the Standing Committee for three-year terms was set for Sunday's session.

Moshe Feder moved that the next session be held in a larger, air-conditioned room. The Chair directed that this be done; upon Craig Miller's response that the committee would try, but couldn't promise it, the Chair changed his directive to a humble request.

Kevin Standlee moved to recess; passed at 10:48 A.M.


Saturday, Sept, 1. 1984

The meeting was called to order at 9:08 AM, in the Avila Room. The attendance list was signed by 100 people, including the officers.


(See p. 2. [Minutes of Friday II Special order of business]) Jim Gilpatrick announced on behalf of the bidders that they would use their own best judgement for this convention, but that a rule would probably be proposed to define the procedure for future conventions. -- It was announced that the L.A.con committee had appointed Mike Glyer as their representative at the ballot counting [Saturday night]; in response to an inquiry, the Chair stated that Mr Glyer was also acceptable to him as a representative of WSFS at the counting.


ITEM 1 (see p. 1) -- MS to close debate (Robert Sacks). Amendment ratified overwhelmingly. [Text as in Program Book, p. 190, with the added proviso after Art. III, Sec. 6 "PROVIDED THAT a bid for New York in 1989 is exempt from the restriction in the last sentence." (p. 1, as edited by the Secretary). The Secretary also added "(Under the old rule, the 1987 Worldcon will be selected in 1985.)" to the proviso after Art. III, Sec. 2 and inserted "PROVIDED THAT until the 1986 Worldcon the old rule shall apply, under which such determinations would be made by the single surviving Worldcon Committee." after Art. III, Sec. 9. Finally, the word "bytime" at the end of C) in the Program Book text is a typographical error for "time".]

ITEM 2 (see p 1) -- Robert Sacks moved to replace administration "by the current Worldcon" [ - not actually in the motion as it stood] by "by the following year's Worldcon, if there is no Continental Convention that year, or by the following year's Continental Convention if there is one". Don Eastlake made the point that this change was sufficiently substantive that, if it were passed, the amendment as a whole would have to be ratified again in 1985. The Chair stated that he would prefer Mr Sacks' proposal to be made as a separate motion; Mr Sacks agreed to this, on the understanding that it would be allowed as new business (see Item 2' below). -- Time having expired, Item 2 was ratified overwhelmingly.[Text as in Program Book, p 190, with "Worldcon" replacing "Convention" in clause (1) (see p. 1).]

ITEM 2', Robert Sacks' motion described in the preceding paragraph -- Don Eastlake moved to amend by also striking the words "at the current Worldcon" (in the amendment just ratified) thereby allowing mail ballots: passed. George Flynn proposed a proviso that the amendment go into effect at the same time as the three-years-in-advance voting (Item 1): passed. Mr Sacks asked that the Secretary prepare a clean copy of the motion as amended, to be voted on Sunday: so agreed.

ITEM 3 (see p. 1) -- George Flynn pointed out that the text as it stood seemed to require 1987 bidders to file by the end of L.A.con II; the Chair ruled that 1987 bidders would not be affected by ratification of this amendment. -- MSP (Robert Sacks) to close debate. The result of a voice vote was in doubt. A division vote was called for, and Item 3 was ratified by a vote of 47-25. [Text as in Program Book, p. 190. In accordance with the Chair's ruling, the Secretary inserted "PROVIDED THAT the deadlines in the last sentence do not apply to bidders for 1987." after Art. III, Sec. 5. Since no indication to the contrary was given, the Secretary interpreted this exemption to apply to both Worldcon and NASFiC bidders for 1987, and so informed the Aussiecon committee. Under this proviso, the phrase "before the calendar year in which selection will occur" in Art. III, Sec. 7 (Item 2 above; "will occur" somehow got changed to "occurs" in the text certified to Aussiecon, but this seems to make no difference) is presumably also suspended for 1987 NASFiC bidders. The Secretary also changed "before the mail ballots are set" to "before the deadline" in the fourth sentence of Art. III, Sec. 1, since this deadline for bidders to qualify is now defined by Sec 5.]

[The Secretary wishes to point out an anomaly created by the new text of Art. III, Sec. 5: The Worldcon required to publish the deadline for bids (Art. III, Sec. 4) is no longer the one administering the bidding in question. For example, the 1988 and 1989 bids must now be filed by the end of Aussiecon, with the administering Worldcon (ConFederation). However, the deadline and other information must be published four months earlier (April 1985) by the then "current Committee" (Aussiecon). I believe this requirement is satisfied by simply publishing the Constitution: however, this suggests that Section 4 is now redundant and should perhaps be repealed (I did not feel sufficiently confident of this conclusion to delete it on my own authority).]



ITEM A (see P. 2, and text of committee report in Appendix) -- Craig Miller read a list of corrections to the text of the motion as printed in the committee report; the revised text is given below, with changes underlined:

MOVED, that the rotation plan shall be changed dividing North America into 2 zones with the Western Zone defined as Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Points West. The Eastern Zone is defined as Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Points East. Mexico is defined as being in the Western Zone. This plan, if adopted, will take effect with the 1987 selection of the 1990 (Western Zone) Worldcon site.

MOVED, that the Site Selection Study Committee be continued and directed to investigate the feasibility of extending site-selection lead time.

Mr Miller then delivered the committee report (having been asked to do so by Stu Hellinger), Indicating that a majority of the committee supported the motion above. Mary Morman, a member of the committee, suggested that the problem could be avoided by adding a fourth zone for non-North America. Mark Evans submitted his separate minority report, suggesting that the 60 mile exclusion be replaced by a state exclusion and that rotation zones be abolished. (However, neither of these proposals was made as a motion.) Mr Hellinger added that he had talked to 45 convention bureaus, and that some recommended a lead time of more than 5 years. -- In response to an inquiry by DeAnn Iwan, the Chair ruled that overseas bids would not be affected by the committee's motion. -- A motion was made and passed to commend the committee for its work. The Chair stated that he would reappoint the committee: it was objected that this was part of the second motion. Leah Zeldes attempted to object to consideration of the latter motion; this was ruled to be not in order yet.

The first of the committee's motions was declared on the floor. (Debate limit, 20 minutes.) Leah Zeldes objected to consideration: defeated. Jack Herman submitted the following amendments

MOVED, to amend to read that the rotation plan shall be changed dividing the world into 2 zones with the Western Zone defined as Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mexico, Central America, and all territories west to 60 degrees E of Greenwich. The Eastern Zone is defined as Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, South America, and all territories east to 60 degrees E of Greenwich. This plan, if adopted, will take effect with the 1987 selection of the 1990 Worldcon site.

(Actually the omission of Iowa was rectified in both motions shortly afterward. It was also clarified that the Caribbean was intended to be in the Eastern Zone under Mr Herman's motion.) Mr Miller did not accept this as a friendly amendment, and debate ensued on the amendment. Mr Smith proposed that metroplexes straddling the line be allowed to bid in either year: not accepted, withdrawn. Gail Kaufman moved to refer the question to the UN: ruled out of order. MSP (Rick Katze) to close debate on Mr Herman's amendment. A division vote was required, and the amendment passed 59-27. The Secretary inquired as to the effect on Article III, Section 7; Mr Herman stated that the intent was to strike the first sentence of that section. -- Debate continued on the motion as amended. MS (George Mitchell) to close debate: failed. MS (Tony Lewis) to extend debate time 10 minutes: passed. Mr Lewin moved to refer the motion to committee: passed (division vote) 52-37. Richard Russell suggested that the Chair defer naming the committee until after the second motion was acted on: this was agreed to.

The committee's second motion(see above) was then considered. Mr Herman inquired whether it would be the same committee, and the Chair said it was his prerogative to re-form the committee. Mr Miller agreed that this was the motion's intent. There was no objection to the Chair's doing so.


[The Secretary felt it to be his responsibility to edit the motion to conform to the style of the Constitution. It was therefore passed on to Aussiecon (and to the special committee) in the following form:

MOVED, to amend the WSFS Constitution as follows:

A) Replace the first two sentences of Article III, Section 6, with the following:

To ensure equitable distribution of Worldcon sites, the world is divided into two (2) zones as follows.
Western: Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mexico, Central America, and all territories west to sixty (60) degrees East of Greenwich;
Eastern, Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, the West Indies, South America, and all territories east to sixty (60) degrees East of Greenwich.
Worldcon sites shall alternate between the two zones.

B) Delete the first sentence of Article III, Section 7 and change the second sentence to read
In the event of a Worldcon site outside of North America being selected, there shall be an interim Continental Convention in the North American portion of the zone whose turn it is, to be held in the same year as the overseas Worldcon.
PROVIDED THAT this plan, if adopted, shall take effect with the 1987 selection of the 1990 (Western zone) Worldcon site.]

[An aside: I had hoped to include summaries of debate in these minutes, but it became clear that this would have expanded them to a prohibitive length. However, I feel obliged to address one point which has been the subject of public discussion. I am sorry to report that my notes of the debate on the above motion yield no information as to who originated the phrase "wimpy zone".]

ITEM B (see pp. 2-3) -- Craig Miller pointed out that the motion did not state a deadline for the presentation of documents by write-in bidders: the Chair ruled that the convention where the voting would take place should be taken as the deadline. -- On a voice vote, the Chair declared that the nays had it; however, a division was then called for, and Item B passed 55-17.

ITEM C (see P. 3) -- Seth Breidbart moved to amend "$20" to "$25": not accepted by the makers, and overwhelmingly defeated. (It was pointed out by Don Eastlake that it would be in order to amend the amount downward at Aussiecon without requiring further ratification.) Richard Russell moved to change "$20" to "20 U.S. dollars or the equivalent": accepted. -- Item C as amended passed overwhelmingly.

The chair stated the order of business for Sunday's session: 1) site-selection business; 2) Item 2' (p. 6); 3)Items D through H; 4) Standing Committee election. -- The meeting recessed at 11:08 AM.



Sunday, Sept 2. 1984

The meeting was called to order at 9:04 AM. The attendance list was signed by 78 people, including the officers.


Mike Glyer announced the results of the 1986 site-selection voting:




New York

No Preference

None of the Above



























(Invalid ballots represent people who voted twice, non-members, etc.) Atlanta was therefore declared the winner, having an absolute majority on the first ballot. The Chair commended Mr Glyer and congratulated Atlanta. Penny Frierson and Jim Gilpatrick spoke briefly on behalf of Atlanta: the Toastmaster would be Bob Shaw, the Fan Guest of Honor Terry Carr, and the Professional Guest of Honor Ray Bradbury; the name of the convention would be ConFederation. -- MSP (Seth Breidbart) to commend Atlanta for being fannish.


ITEM 2' (see p. 6) - As directed on Saturday, the Secretary had prepared a revised text:

MOVED, to amend the section of the WSFS Constitution printed as Item 2 in the Program Book [now the last sentence of Article III, Section X] by replacing clause (1) with "(1) voting shall be by written ballot administered by the following year's Worldcon, if there is no Continental Convention that year, or by the Continental Convention, if there is one, with ballots cast either by mail or at the administering convention."
PROVIDED THAT if passed this motion would take effect at the same time as the 3-years-in-advance Worldcon site selection, i.e. it would first apply to a possible 1989 NASFiC.

Larry Ruh felt that "that year" was ambiguous, and suggested the wording "administered in the following year by the then current Worldcon". Mark Olson asked, if the voting were administered by the NASFiC, of which con the voter must be a member; the Chair ruled that one must be a member of the administering convention. The Secretary was directed to make both these changes. Item 2' as amended was then passed.

[Text as modified by the Secretary:
(1) voting shall be by written ballot administered in the following year by the then current Worldcon, if there is no Continental Convention that year, or by the Continental Convention, if there is one, with ballots cast either by mail or at the administering convention, and with only members of the administering convention allowed to vote.

To clarify the meanings suppose that in 1986 an overseas site were selected for the 1989 Worldcon: the site of the l989 NASFiC would then be chosen by the members of the 1987 NASFiC, if any, or else the members of the 1987 Worldcon, with the voting in either case taking place in 1987.]

ITEM D (see P. 3) -- Jack Herman objected that the purpose of the motion was not "to abolish the NASFiC" (as stated by the Secretary in the agenda) but only to remove mention of the NASFiC from the WSFS Constitution: the Chair ruled that the Secretary's description was accurate. Mr Herman announced that next year's Chair (himself) would rule that it was not. [For the record, the Secretary accepts Mr Herman's correction.] Mr Herman suggested that if this motion were passed and ratified in 1985, the 1985 NASFiC could then proceed to adopt its own independent Constitution. -- On a voice vote, the Chair declared that the nays had it; a division was then called for, and Item D was defeated 21-49.

ITEM E (see P. 3) -- MSP (Robert Sacks) to extend debate time 4 minutes. Seth Breidbart pointed out that the motion would merely regularize the authorization already in the Constitution ("such other rules as may be published by the Committee in advance" in Art IV, Sec. 4). In response to this and other inquiries, the Chair ruled that Robert's Rules would be assumed to be the authority unless the bidding committee specified otherwise, - Item E passed 45-25.

[Text as revised by the Secretary:
MOVED, to amend Article IV, Section 4 of the WSFS Constitution by adding, after the words "...Newly Revised": (or the equivalent meeting rules authority in the country of the current Worldcon, provided that such authority must be specified when a site-selection bid is filed).]

ITEM F (see pp. 3-4) -- Debate time extended 1 minute (all the time against having been consumed by inquiries). -- Item F passed.


ITEM G (see p. 4) -- The Chair stated again that the blank would be filled by the procedure proposed in the explanation of the motion. Bob Hillis (Timekeeper) said that the time used in filling the blank would not be counted against the debate limit: the default on the motion itself being 5 minutes. -- Robert Sacks attempted to submit an amendment: "The current Worldcon is requested to provide additional funding as necessary." The Chair ruled this out of order, since no full amount was on the floor yet. -- Jack Herman suggested that it might be in order to adopt the concept in principle, then proceed to determine the amount. The Chair called for a voice vote on the principle. but Kent Bloom objected that this put the vote before the debate; no vote was taken. -- Mr Sacks asked leave to put his amendment on the floor. The Chair reiterated his intention to follow the procedure proposed by Don Eastlake; attempting to carry this out, he then called for 20 minutes of general debate. Richard Russell moved to set a debate time of 10 minutes for part (1) of the procedure: this was declared passed on a voice vote. Mr Eastlake objected that this was a reduction of the debate time and thus required a two-thirds vote; he called for a division vote, but none was taken.

Actual debate finally began. Mr Sacks proposed a fixed amount of $3000 Rick Katze proposed a fixed amount of $500. Mr Eastlake nominated a fixed amount of $1200, an amount of $1 per voter, and 5% of the voting fees. Mr Herman suggested 5% of the default voting fee instead: this was not accepted by Mr Eastlake, but was submitted as a separate nomination. Richard Russell nominated 2% of the voting pool and 50 cents per voter. Mr Russell asked whether this motion prohibited convention committees from adding additional money: it was ruled that it did not. Time having expired, it was MSP (Mr Herman) to extend the general debate 4 minutes. Avery Davis nominated l% of the voting pool and 20 cents per voter.

Voting on fixed dollar amounts: $1200, $500, $300 nominated. The Chair ruled that the procedure would be to start with the highest and work down, the winner being the first amount to gain a majority. $1200 defeated; $500 passed. -- Voting on percentages: 5% of pool, 5% of default, 2% of pool, 1% of pool nominated. 5% of pool defeated; 5% of default voting fee passed, 37-24. -- Voting on amount per voter: $1, 50 cents, 20 cents nominated. $l defeated on a voice vote, failed 31-34 on a division: 50 cents per voter passed. -- Voting between alternatives: Lew Wolkoff moved to add "whichever is largest" and adopt all three figures. Mr Herman suggested substituting "median" or "smallest"; Mr Wolkoff did not accept this substitution, and Mr Wolkoff's amendment was then defeated. Mr Russell moved to extend debate 3 minutes; this was ruled out of order in the middle of the voting. -- Vote between 5% of default voting fees and 50 cents per voter: voice vote in doubt, on division 5% of default voting fees won 39-24. -. Vote between 5% of default voting fee and fixed amount of $500: on division vote; 5% of default voting fees won 39-24.

The blank in Item G was therefore filled [actual wording inserted: "five percent (5%) of the default voting fee per voter"], and debate ensued on the motion as a whole. -- Mr Sacks withdrew his amendment. Dalroy Ward suggested that the amount be fixed at the time of voting, but not paid until one year later; this was not accepted as a friendly amendment, and was withdrawn. Evelyn Simpson suggested that the insertion be after the second sentence in Art. III, Sec. 1, rather than the third; the Chair declared that this was up to the Secretary. [The Secretary sees no reason to make this change.] -- Michael Smith moved to table, but withdrew the motion when it was pointed out that this would take more time. A vote on the motion as a whole was at last taken: a division was called for, and Item G passed 53-20.

ITEM H (see P. 5) -- In response to requests for clarification, Gary Feldbaum submitted an amendment to the original motion, which would become subsection (a):
(b) This shall not preclude an individual who is a member of a Worldcon Committee from offering their services, funds, or supplies to a prospective Worldcon Committee.
(c) This shall not preclude a current Worldcon Committee from accepting the services of a prospective Worldcon Committee or its members, nor shall it preclude a prospective Worldcon Committee from offering services or merchandise to the members of a Worldcon.

This amendment was accepted by all the makers of the original motion (including those not present). George Scithers suggested rewording the motion as a resolution: "It is the feeling of this meeting that ". Robert Sacks objected, so this was not accepted. -- Dalroy Ward proposed striking "it is administering" from the first sentence (so as to apply to all bidding committees): accepted. Leslie Turek proposed changing "the same" to "equivalent": accepted. Mark Olson moved that the motion be made a resolution rather than a Constitutional amendment: passed.-- Robert Sacks moved that it be made a Standing Rule. Don Eastlake made the point of order that the Standing Rules apply only to the Business Meeting, but the Chair allowed a vote: Mr Sacks' motion was overwhelmingly defeated. -- Seth Breidbart proposed adding after the first sentence one permitting discrimination on the basis of year: not accepted. -- The resolution as amended was voted on and passed.

[Final text of Item H, as edited by the Secretary:


(a) The current Worldcon Committee should be neutral between committees bidding for future Worldcons. It should not request or accept money or supplies from any one bidding committee without making equivalent opportunity available to any competing committee(s).

(b) This resolution shall not preclude any individual member of a Worldcon Committee from offering his or her services, funds, or supplies to a bidding committee.

(c) This resolution shall not preclude the current Worldcon Committee from accepting the services of a bidding committee or its members, nor shall it preclude a bidding committee from offering services or merchandise to the members of a Worldcon.]

MSP (Richard Russell) to suspend the rules for 4 minutes to allow introduction of an amendment to the Standing Rules:

The text of any main motion presented to a Business Meeting shall contain a short title.

The amendment was passed. [This has been inserted as Standing Rule 6, with the former Standing Rules 6-17 renumbered as 7-18. The former Rule 18 (on NASFiC selection procedures) has been made obsolete by the ratification of Item 2 above, and is therefore deleted. However, the Secretary suggests that it might be desirable to draft a more general rule defining the procedures to be followed in the event that the selection of either a Worldcon or a NASFiC should devolve on the Business Meeting.]


Michael Smith announced the availability of Atlanta's Progress Report Zero.

Presentations were allowed by the 1987 Worldcon bidders. The only bidder present was Malcolm Edwards, chair of the Britain in '87 committee. Mr Edwards described the proposed site (Brighton, using the Brighton Conference Centre) and the committee. In response to an inquiry, he estimated that 5000 attendees could be accommodated, and that between 4000 and 5000 were expected (compared with 3200 in 1979).

Jack Herman wished to move that Art. I, Sec. 7 be interpreted to require that any pro rata reimbursement must benefit the Society as a whole. There were objections, so the motion was not allowed.

Ballots were passed out for the election of Standing Committee members. The Chair inquired whether any of the nominees had been appointed by the Atlanta committee; Jim Gilpatrick reported that Penny Frierson was the Atlanta appointee to the Standing Committee. The ballots were collected, and George Flynn and Bob Hillis were appointed as tellers.

[The actual count was not completed until after the close of the Business Meeting, with Mr Hillis, Sharon Sbarsky, and Evelyn Simpson doing most of the work. The result as then obtained was that Willie Siros took first place, with Rick Katze and Ross Pavlac tied for second. A subsequent recount by the Secretary gave slightly different numbers, but the same three winners:


1st Place


3rd Place






34 (tie)







34 (tie)







































Messrs. Katze, Siros, and Pavlac were therefore elected to the Standing Committee for 3-year terms. Subsequently it was announced that Craig Miller had replaced Milt Stevens as the L.A.con II appointee to the committee.]

Moshe Feder moved that "it is the sense of the meeting that we're unhappy about the Convention Center's having signs reading 'World Sci Fi Soc'". The motion seems to have been ignored.

Don Eastlake announced a meeting of the Standing Committee, at 4 PM the same day in the Ventura Room.

Dick Smith moved to suspend the rules to allow Jack Herman to make his motion (see above). The Chair did not consent to allowing a vote on this. Gail Kaufman moved to overturn the Chair's ruling: defeated.


The Chair announced his appointments to the new Special Committee (see Pp 7-9): Ross Pavlac, chair; Craig Miller, assistant (and probably reporter at Aussiecon); Bob Hillis, Jack Herman, Ben Yalow, Tony Lewis and Malcolm Edwards pro tem (may nominate a replacement). The committee's mailing address would be the Chicon box (P.O. Box A3120, Chicago, IL 60690, USA). Names would be taken for the committee's mailing list, and substantial contributors to the discussion might be added to the committee. (In the course of discussion on these appointments, the Chair was called to order for a personal reference.)

Robert Sacks moved to adjourn; withdrawn upon the submission of additional business.

MSP (Jack Herman) to thank and congratulate the podium officers.

Moshe Feder submitted two motions (the actual texts were reconstructed after the meeting):

RESOLVED, that the Business Meeting censures the L.A.con II committee for withdrawing the free table offered to the Britain in '87 bid and then requiring them to pay for a table.

The motion was declared defeated on a voice vote, but passed 31-23 on a division. Robert Sacks moved to appoint Rick Katze as Sergeant at Arms: this was ruled out of order. -- Mr Feder's second motion:

RESOLVED, that the Business Meeting requests that the L.A.con II committee rectify the action referred to in the resolution of censure by refunding the table fee paid by Britain in '87.

The motion passed. [Subsequently Mr Feder determined that his motions were based on a faulty premise. He published the following statement in the convention newsletter, and asked that it also appear in the minutes. "I am highly embarrassed to discover that the first substantive motions I have ever succeeded in getting the WSFS Business Meeting to pass has a spurious basis. In the heat of my zeal in support of the Britain in '87 bid, I jumped to a conclusion based on what seemed at the time a weighty body of evidence and succeeded thereafter in getting the Business Meeting to censure L.A.con. While that action cannot be formally reversed until next year's Business Meeting, I would like to take this opportunity to apologize to the L.A.con II Committee as a whole and to Craig Miller in particular for pillorying them unfairly. I hope all concerned will look at this incident in the light of my original motives of fannishness and justice and accept my apology. Perhaps this is yet another demonstration that the Business Meetings might better be held when we are all more awake."]

Robert Sacks moved to adjourn sine die. Passed at 11:37 AM.

Items 1, 2, and 3 have been passed by two successive Worldcon Business Meetings, and are now part of the WSFS Constitution; Items B, C, 2', E, F, and G have been given first passage, and will be considered for ratification at Aussiecon. Item A has been referred to committee, and will be reported back at Aussiecon. The motion near the bottom of page 11 has been passed and is now part of the Standing Rules.

According to the attendance lists, the following people attended one or more sessions of the Business Meeting: Sue Who Abramovitz, Claire Anderson, Dave Anderson, Lynn Anderson, H.J.N. Andruschak, Curtis W Barry, Allan Beatty, Sue Blom, Kent Bloom, Seth Breidbart, Ann Broomhead, Joni Brill, Brian Burley, Diana L. Cartwright, Joe Celko, Cheryl Chapman, Chauntecleer (Michael Smith), Fred Cleaver, Andy Cowan, Todd Dashoff, Genny Dazzo, R.J. Doyle, Donald Eastlake III, Donald Eastlake IV, Jill Eastlake, Lise Eisenberg, Louis Epstein, Gary Farber, Bruce Farr, Doug Faunt, Moshe Feder, Gary Feldbaum, Katie Filipowicz, Wilma Fisher, Joseph Fleischmann, George Flynn, Doug Friauf, Penny Frierson, Larry Gelfand, Paul Giguere, Jim Gilpatrick, Terry Gish, Seth Goldberg, Joy Goodin, David Govaker, Stephen J. Grosko Jr., Liz Gross, Susan Hammond, George E. Harris, Stuart C. Hellinger, Jack R. Herman, Robert L. Hillis, Margaret A Hilt, Rachel E. Holmen, Dana Hudes, Eleanor Hull, DeAnn Iwan, Janice Jacobson, James Jennings, Bill Jaffe, Carol Johnson, Karen Johnson, Richard Kabakjian, Keith G. Kato, Rick Katze, Gail S. Kaufman, Earl Kemp, Terry Kemp, Allan Kent, Kenneth Knabbe, Candy Larue, Joseph Lattin, Alexis Layton, Harry Leonard, Anthony Lewis, Susan M. Lichauco, Paula Lieberman, J.M. Lofficier, Robin Mabry, Marci Malinowycz, George E. Martin, Sean M McCoy, Bruce M. Miller, Craig Miller, Andrea Mitchell, George Mitchell, Mary Morman, William E Neal Jr., Mark L Olson, Ron Ontell, Ozzie (Robert Osband), Sara Paul, Ross Pavlac, Dawn Plaskon, Mary Prince, Alan Rachlin, Neil Rest, Joe Rico, Arthur L. Rubin, Larry Ruh, Richard S. Russell, Louise Sachter, Robert E. Sacks, Von Sagrillo, Evan Sakey, Sharon Sbarsky, Michael Schaffer, George H. Scithers, Ricky Scott, Nancy R Segar, David Shea, John Lars Shoberg, Evelyn Simpson, Willie Siros, Fran Skene, Richard H.E. Smith II, Victoria A.Smith, Lee Smoire, D.M. Spector, Jack Speer, Laura Spiers, Kevin Standlee, Paul Stinchfield, Valerie Sussman, Robert R. Taylor, Michelle Tenney, Greg Thokar, Leslie Turek, James Turner, Pat Vandenberg, Tom Wallbank, Thom Walls, Dalroy M. Ward, Eva Whitley, Lewis H Wolkoff, Ben Yalow, Leah A Zeldes, Richard W Zellich, and two illegible names, for a total of 140 people. (Students of fannish geopolitics may be interested in knowing that California and Massachusetts each had 23 addresses).


Appendix A -- WSFS Standing Committee Report

To L.A.con II Business Meeting

From: Donald Eastlake, III

Subject: WSFS Standing Committee Report

Date: 24 August, 1984

1. Registration

We have succeeded in registering "World Science Fiction Society", "WSFS", "World Science Fiction Convention", "Worldcon", and "The Hugo Award" with the US Patent and Trademark Office. We are still working on registering "Science Fiction Achievement Award". Thus far it has been rejected as being a generic description.

2. Committee Activity

A meeting of the Standing Committee was held at ConStellation, as required by the WSFS Constitution. Donald Eastlake was elected Chairman of the committee and it was decided that no other officers of the committee were necessary at this time. It was voted to obtain a Post Office box in the Boston area, which has been done (PO Box 1270, Kendall Square Station, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA).

No other meeting of the committee was held until L.A.con II, where a meeting was held Thursday. Donald Eastlake, the Chairman, acted for the committee during the year.

3. Finances

Below is a summary of WSFS Mark Registration finances to date:

3.1 - to 31 August 1982

Income in this period was $700.00, all contributed by Noreascon II. Expenses were $200.00 for a trademark search, $515.00 in legal fees, and $18.05 in miscellaneous expenses. These legal fees covered roughly half the research, drafting, filing, etc, involved in initially submitting the six marks. Net for this period was minus $33.05.

3.2 - from 1 September 1982 to 31 August 1983

Income in this period was $750.00, contributed equally by Denvention II, Chicon IV, and L.A.con II. Expenses were $467.05 in legal fees and $3.09 in miscellaneous expenses. These legal fees covered the second half of the expenses associated with the initial filing. Net for this period was plus $275.87, for a cumulative net thus far of $242.82.

3.3 - from 1 September 1983 to 31 August 1984

During the last year, income was $595.00, consisting of $250.00 from ConStellation and $345.00 from Massachusetts Convention Fandom, Inc. Expenses were $970.00 in legal fees and $56.05 in miscellaneous expenses. Legal fees cover affidavits in connection with "The Hugo Award" and "Science Fiction Achievement Award", amendment of all applications to conform to the requirements or suggestions of the government Trademark Examiner, and expenses in connection with answering the "final" adverse determination on "Science Fiction Achievement Award". Net for the year was minus $431.05. Cumulative net for all periods is thus minus $188.23.

4. Membership

The following is the 1983-1984 Membership of the Standing Committee:

a. Chicon IV representative - Ross Pavlac

b. ConStellation representative - Peggy Rae Pavlat

c. L.A.con II representative - Milton A Stevens

d. Aussiecon II representative - John Foyster

e. Elected members through the 1986 Worldcon - Donald E. Eastlake, III; Leslie J. Turek; George P. Flynn.

f. Elected members through Aussiecon II - Kent Bloom; Jim Gilpatrick; Benjamin Yalow.

g. Elected members through L.A.con II - Rick Katze; Craig Miller; William Siros.

[Attached to the committee report was a press release, announcing the registration of the five marks and describing the committee, but containing no significant information not in the report itself.]


[As distributed at the Business Meeting, the report also included the following addition by the Secretary:]

Addendums The current Standing Committee met on Thursday, August 30, and took the following actions:
(1) passed the following motion defining its own quorum:
MOVED, that a quorum of the Standing Committee shall consist of either (a) a majority of all members, (b) five or more members, if at least thirty days' written notice has been given, or (c) however many members attend, for a meeting at the Worldcon announced at the Worldcon Business Meeting.
(2) took no position on the motion submitted to the Business Meeting by Don Eastlake regarding funding of the Standing Committee, but agreed that $500/year is the minimum amount required for the committee's future operations.

[Another meeting of the Standing Committee took place on Sunday, Sept. 2, after the close of the WSFS Business Meeting. The newly chosen members (see p. 12) took their seats, and the following actions were taken:
(1) It was decided to continue with only one officer, Don Eastlake as Chairman.
(2) It was agreed to comply with the Business Meeting's directives (a) not to pursue registration of "Science Fiction Achievement Award" beyond the current appeal, (b) to pursue registration of "NASFiC" (see p. 2)
(3) A Standing Rule was passed:
Resolved, that the Standing Committee compile a list of Worldcon Business Meeting resolutions of continuing effect, and maintain an archive of Business Meeting minutes.
(4) Committee members were asked to collect guides to the use of service marks (cf. p. 2).
(5) The committee expressed its unanimous opinion that the "World SF" organization is in conflict with our marks. There was also a consensus to write to the Chicago Film Festival, to tell them to stop using the term "Hugo Award".]


Appendix B -- Majority Report of Special Committee

[As noted on pp. 2 and 7 of these minutes, the following document was originally submitted as a minority report, but became a majority report when endorsed by committee chairman Stuart Hellinger]

Date: 12 June 1984

To The Members of the Committee to Study the Site-Selection Process and the Rotation of Worldcon Sites

Re: Report to the Business Meeting of L.A.con II

From: Craig Miller & Ben Yalow

Cc: Don Eastlake, Bruce Pelz, Willie Siros

Whereas the 42nd Worldcon is fast approaching and no word has been heard from chairman of this committee, Stuart Hellinger, since 5 January, nor have any committee proposals or committee memoirs been circulated amongst the committee by him, we feel it incumbent upon the members of the committee to continue and to bring forth a proposal. This should not be taken as an attempt to overthrow the chairman, just one to get things moving. As there is an amendment awaiting final ratification which will alter the site-selection process, it is especially important that this committee fulfil its obligations and come forward with some recommendations and suggestions.

Therefore, the following:

There are really two aspects of the site-selection/rotation question which should be discussed. One is lead-time - how far in advance the site should be selected. The other is rotation, or eligibility - which sites are eligible in which years.

The currently standing motion, which was passed at ConStellation and is awaiting a ratification vote at L.A.con II, addresses only the question of lead time (although there is an exclusionary rule included in the motion that affects eligibility, it is not the primary aspect of the motion).

It seems safe to say that the majority supports extending the lead-time for site selection. The question that remains is "to how long".

Currently, we are selecting sites 2 years in advance. The proliferation of conventions and the growth in the size of the Worldcon have made finding an adequate site more and more difficult, with our relatively short lead-time for a large convention.

Many large non-science fiction conventions select their sites as many as 5 or 6 years in advance. This is almost certainly too far in advance for the Worldcon. Ours is an informal association of hobbyists, and expecting them to hold together that long is wishful thinking, at best.

It is our opinion that the only feasible plans are either 3-year lead-time or 4-year lead-time. Longer than that would be foolhardy.

It can be taken as a given that groups bidding for a convention announce their intentions 2 to 3 years before the vote is taken. Therefore, a 3-year lead-time would require a group to stay together 5 to 6 years. A 4-year lead-time would require 6 to 7 years.

At this point in time, we recommend a 3-year lead-time. Perhaps, in a few years, it may become feasible to increase this to a 4-year lead-time, but for now, that seems to be excessive.

A 3-year lead-time has a direct effect upon the rotation eligibility situation. As the Worldcon currently has a 3-zone rotation plan, a 3-year lead-time causes the site-selection process to take place in the zone being selected. This could, theoretically, lead to one city or one region in a zone being the constant site in that zone.

For that reason, the Business Meeting of ConStellation determined to add an exclusionary rule to the lead-time currently awaiting ratification at L.A.con II.

The current motion includes the statement "A site shall be ineligible if it is within sixty (60) miles of the site at which selection occurs." Although this exclusionary rule will have some effect, it is not foolproof. Nor is it a truly elegant solution. 60 miles -from what point? To what point? From city hall to city hall? From Convention Site to Convention Site? Air miles or land miles? Whose measurements? Etcetera.

While the above motion and its exclusionary rule are perhaps adequate, it is probably better to have a rotation plan that is the same from year to year and not affected by recent site selections.

As any 3-zone plan would cause a match-up between the zone in which the vote was being conducted and the zone being voted upon, a 2-zone or 4-zone plan would be required to avoid such match-ups.

When considering the rotation zones, there are 3 main factors to be considered: non-North American sites, fannish population density, and sites capable of holding a Worldcon.


It seems to us that the best course of action is to leave non-North American sites the right to bid at any time, for any year, and in any rotational zone. This thereby gives them the advantage of selecting their year based on local restrictions and availabilities, and has the additional benefit of allowing the non-North American part of the science fiction community to bid for and hold as many Worldcons as they desire but does not require them to hold more than they are capable of. Therefore, zones will be North American divisions, with non-North American bids maintaining their current status.

2-zone plans could divide the country East/West or North/South. As one might suspect, there is not an even distribution of fans across the country, nor is there an even distribution of sites capable of holding a Worldcon. Using several years' worth of Worldcon membership statistics (to allow for zonal variations) and assorted hotel guides, including the Official Meeting Facilities Guide, Gavel, Red Book, and the Successful Meetings Guide, we came up with several lists and plans for dividing North America into 2 zones with approximately even distributions of sites capable of holding a Worldcon and of fans who attend Worldcons.

The plan with the most even distribution is shown on Map 1 (attached). The Western Zone is defined as Manitoba, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and points west. The Eastern Zone is defined as Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and points east. Mexico would be in the Western Zone.

We feel that this gives two strong zones, each with 6 to 10 viable sites for a Worldcon, and with approximately equal populations of Worldcon-attending fans.

4-zone plans get much trickier. Map 2 (attached) shows one possible version of this concept. While we feel that this is probably the best distribution of sites and population available in a 4-zone arrangement, we also feel that it leaves at least one, if not two, zones that are too weak to regularly mount multiple reasonable bids. We feel that the distribution of sites and population is such that a 4-Zone plan is not feasible.


It is definitely necessary to increase the lead-time for site selection from 2 years to 3 years.

At a minimum, it is necessary to include an exclusionary rule, such as currently in the amendment. However, we feel a distance of 75 miles would be preferable to the current 60 miles, and that a definition of how distances are measured should be included in the amendment. (Note: It is also our belief that increasing the distance and defining the procedure for deriving measurements would not be substantive changes and would not require a further ratification at Aussiecon II.)

While not essential, it would probably be beneficial if a 2-zone plan, similar if not identical to the East/West plan proposed herein, were adopted. It is further suggested that any such plan take effect in 1987 for the selection of the 1990 Worldcon site. 1989 being an Eastern Zone year, 1990 would be a (new) Western Zone year. 1990 is suggested as it is the first year in which there are not already several bids announced. At a minimum, the 2-zone rotation plan requires further serious consideration.

Please let us hear your comments and recommendations soon, so that a report might be prepared in time for the Worldcon.

(Note: Committee members, as listed in the minutes of the ConStellation Business Meetings, are: Stuart Hellinger, chair; Mark Evans, Craig Miller, Mary Morman, Ben Yalow.)

[As distributed at the Business Meeting, this report was accompanied by two proposed motions. These motions appear at the top of P. 7, with the text corrected to remove the numerous typos in the original version.]


Appendix C -- Minority Report of Special Committee

August 20, 1984

To: The Members of the Committee to Study the Site-Selection Process and the Rotation of Worldcon Sites

Re: Report to the L.A.Con II Business Meeting

From: Mark L. Evans

Due to the lack of contact with the chairman of this committee, and the lack of any circulation of comments from other committee members by the chairman, I have taken it upon myself to gather some data relevant to the issue at hand. Please bear in mind that the data, and the conclusions drawn from it, are the product of my own efforts, and do not seek to blame anyone else for them. This may or may not duplicate efforts by other committee members. The lack of information from the committee has made duplication of effort a distinct possibility.

Information was gathered by contacting some 36 Convention Bureaus in assorted cities. The cities were selected upon the basis of size and any past, present, or alluded-to bids for the Worldcon, with a few randomly selected to make an even three dozen. A questionnaire was generated and sent to the selected cities, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope, requesting data on the size of the city, amount of meeting space, number of hotel rooms, and how far in advance bookings are usually made, how far in advance they are preferred, and how far they are willing to make bookings.

To date, 20 usable replies have been received. Without going into a detailed accounting of the replies, a lead time of 3 years seems to be the smallest time acceptable to the convention industry. Many Bureaus indicated that a lead time of 4 to 5 years is preferred. While a few indicated that bookings have been made into the 2000s, most showed a liking for dates between 5 and 10 years in the future as a workable upper limit.

In the light of the above information, it looks as if our current policy of selecting sites a scant 2 years in advance is inadequate. The proposed change to 3 years moves us into a workable time-frame with respect to the convention industry, although at the lower end of the preferred scale. Accordingly, it is my recommendation to the committee that the 3 year proposal be endorsed, and that another (ulp) committee be established to investigate this matter further, gathering data from both the convention industry and fandom as to what seems to be the most viable length of time to deal with.

As to the question of how a change in lead-time will affect the rotation system now in use, a few simple answers suggest themselves. To counter the fear that a 3-zone and 3-year lead-time system will result in an area voting itself a Worldcon on a more or less permanent basis, I would suggest a clause excluding, not a city or an area within a fixed radius from a city, but the state. There are few potential sites that are close enough to each other and a state boundary to cause complications in this matter. Another viable solution is not to go to a 2-zone system, as some other committee members have suggested, but, to go to a single zone for the entire North American continent. This also gets around the problem of no viable bid from an area during its turn at rotation. Fandom is spread about the land mass well enough, and the location of usable sites is random enough, that a single-zone system is not impossible.

One additional comment that I would like to add to this is that the problems of the 1983 Worldcon do not seem to have seriously damaged the desirability of the Worldcon, with respect to Convention Bureaus. Roughly one-half of the ones I contacted for this report indicated a strong interest in hosting a Worldcon, and this was despite a disclaimer with the questionnaire reminding them that I was only after data on booking times and space to help in changing our site-selection procedures, not in selecting a site. We seem to be an attractive prize, despite any recent problems.

People wishing to see more detailed information on the Convention Bureaus that responded to my questionnaire may obtain it by sending an SASE to my home address: [Address now obsolete]

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The Secretary apologizes for the lateness of these minutes. The delay was primarily the result of a fire in his house in October, after which his records (and time) were in disarray for several months. Fortunately, the texts of the motions passed had already been compiled and distributed to Aussiecon II and other concerned parties. The revised texts of the Constitution, Standing Rules, and pending business were subsequently typeset and sent to Aussiecon, which included them in Progress Report 3.

George Flynn

Secretary, L.A.con II Business Meeting

May 29, 1985

"World Science Fiction Society", "WSFS", "World Science Fiction Convention", "Worldcon", "Science Fiction Achievement Award", and "Hugo Award" are service marks of the World Science Fiction Society, an unincorporated literary society.